Text and Articles

Text and Articles

The 1989 Malta Summit

Following the end of World War II, between 1946 and 1991, the United States (US), the Soviet Union (USSR), and their respective allies were locked in a long, tense conflict, known as the Cold War. Although the parties were technically at peace, the period was characterized by an aggressive arms race, proxy wars, and ideological bids for world dominance. A positive development, which was without precedent in world history, was the flourishing of multilateral institutions following the end of the war, such as the United Nations, the Bretton Woods Institutions, and the Council of Europe. These resulted in a cautious approach based on taking decisions only with the support of majorities, although and in the case of the United Nations Permanent Members of the Security Council were also given the right to veto such decisions. Gradually, the spirit of cooperation and trust in the 1970s led to the formation of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation​ in Europe (OSCE), which adopts all decisions by consensus among all participating states. Such an approach is a clear definition of the prevalent trust of that era, in the ability of different parties to put aside unilateral agendas and to address common security issues through multilateral approaches.

Publication Date: 10/11/2021Author: Ministry for Foreign and European Affairs
Science and Diplomacy from a Disarmament Perspective.

Science diplomacy is not new, but it is more important than ever due to the scientific dimension of the current global challenges. The most extended definition refers to science diplomacy as consisting of three linked strands: Firstly, Science in Diplomacy: where scientific know-how and evidence is used to inform and support foreign policy objectives. Secondly, Diplomacy for Science: where diplomatic efforts and resources are aimed at facilitating international scientific and technical cooperation. Lastly, Science for Diplomacy: where scientific cooperation is used as a source of soft power to strengthen or foster foreign relations. In terms of Malta’s efforts in Disarmament and Nuclear Non-Proliferation, the first two strands of the definition are most relevant. Indeed, Malta participates in the main Disarmament-related International Organizations which utilize science to inform policy and/or facilitate technical cooperation, and also monitors scientific and technological developments in weaponry.

Publication Date: 02/09/2020Author: Matthew Attard
Malta’s initiatives at the United Nations

Malta has been a member of the United Nations (UN), since the 1st December 1964. As a proud and active participant within the United Nations Malta fully recognises the importance of having a rules-based multilateral system with the UN at its core. Malta continues to uphold the importance of promoting international cooperation, firm in the belief that global problems require global solutions which can only be achieved through active collaboration and dialogue. As history has shown, and as indeed we are witnessing today with the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, we need to revitalise and refocus our efforts through multilateral endeavours and international cooperation. Only in this way can we secure lasting solutions to the world’s ongoing challenges and problems.

Publication Date: 07/08/2020Author: Kimberly Zammit (Second Secretary) and Michela Zammit (Counsellor).
Malta’s Water Diplomacy

Access to water is a continuing source of instability and conflict around the world. The modern world has already witnessed the use of water resources and infrastructure as a weapon of war in violent conflicts. The role of water diplomacy is to prevent and mitigate such tensions in order to sustain the link between water, security and peace. It aims to promote transboundary and integrated water management as well as effective water governance.

Publication Date: 29/07/2020Author: Ms Michelle Micallef
Malta and Small Island Developing States

Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are a group of States spread all over the globe, but which, as highlighted by the United Nations (UN), share common challenges of an economic and geographical nature that hinder their socio-economic progress such as, inter alia, small domestic markets, geographical isolation, exposure to natural disasters and a fragile biodiversity.

Publication Date: 21/07/2020Author: Mr Dennis Grech, Counsellor
Hybrid threats and disinformation: the COVID-19 Pandemic

Hybrid threats and disinformation are by no means a new phenomenon in today’s security domain. However, with the unexpected outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and the rapid evolution of the world around us, a series of invisible threats began taking a centre stage in the domain of security. Hybrid threats and disinformation are such two examples, along with cyber malicious activities.

Publication Date: 21/07/2020Author: Dorian Farrugia
Fostering global partnerships to support safe, orderly and regular migration

Migration is admittedly a sensitive subject, eliciting many emotions and fears, and often reduced to apocalyptic terms. The reality is that migration is a complex, multifaceted phenomenon that includes many stakeholders across countries of origin, transit and destination. Amid this complexity, the main thrust of our objective remains that we want migration to be a choice, and not a necessity imposed upon people. Those who have already migrated out of genuine fear for their lives or persecution should be provided the protection they need.

Publication Date: 15/07/2020Author: Mr Thomas Anthony Muscat,
Malta’s Ocean Diplomacy

The first thing that comes to mind when one mentions Malta and the oceans is the Declaration by Malta’s former representative to the United Nations, Arvid Pardo, in 1967, for the deep seabed beyond national jurisdiction and the resources contained therein to be declared the Common Heritage of Mankind. It expresses the desire for the global commons which constitute elements inherent to our natural environment to be administered in such manner as to benefit all of humankind.

Publication Date: 18/06/2020Author: M. Micallef
Malta and the IAEA

Speaking of Diplomacy in relation to Nuclear Science, what initially springs to mind are perhaps images of Summits between the leaders of Nuclear Powers amidst political tensions, Heads of State signing Disarmament treaties, the Cold War, or a State’s Nuclear arsenal. However, while traditional ‘’Nuclear Diplomacy’’ focused on military matters remains crucial in today’s political scenario, the international community has come to place ever-greater emphasis on the promotion of peaceful use of Nuclear Energy and Nuclear technology. This introduces a new face of Nuclear Science-related Diplomacy and moves the subject away from strictly military issues and towards national development.

Publication Date: 11/06/2020Author: Matthew Attard
Malta on the International Sphere: A Small State’s Perspective

In literall jargon, small is equated to size, however when this term is used to define a state, more often than not, we are faced with the question of what constitute a small state. There is ongoing debate as to what constitutes a small state. Opinions differ to say the least. Academics have failed to establish just one definition of small states, many seem to argue that size is defined by the country’s landmass whilst others are of the view that “smallness” can be perceived by their role in international hierarchy.

Publication Date: 01/06/2020Author: Michela Zammit; Dennis Grech; Kimberly Zammit
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